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Eden, the Tree of Life and the Wisdom of the Serpent

By Jay Williams

It is difficult to imagine a tale that has had more of an impact upon Western culture than the story of Adam in the garden of Eden. Although neither the other writers of the Hebrew Scriptures nor the early Rabbis paid much attention to this Genesis tale, the apostle Paul lifted it out of its apparent oblivion by making the fall of Adam “into sin” the whole reason for the Christian epic of redemption. For Paul, the Christ, that is to say the Messiah, came not to reestablish earthly, righteous, political rule as the Jews expected, but to solve the problem posed by Adam’s disobedience and his subsequent fall. See complete essay


Taking 1 Enoch Seriously

By Philip F. Esler

1 Enoch has been described as the most important work of ancient Jewish apocalyptic literature not included in the Hebrew Bible. This is a persuasive view, although why the work was omitted remains a very difficult question to answer. Certainly its original composition in Aramaic should have presented no obstacle, given that Daniel 2:4-7:28 and parts of Ezra were written in that language. My aim in this article is to substantiate the claim for the importance of 1 Enoch—historically, See complete essay


New Archaeological Data from The Great Revolt in Jerusalem Raise New Questions on Josephus

By David Gurevich

At the end of March 2018, Dr. Eilat Mazar of the Hebrew University announced the discovery of dozens of bronze coins of the First Jewish Revolt (66 –70 CE) in her Ophel excavations in Jerusalem. Coins of the rebels’ mint are not an unusual finding in Jerusalem. However, a few factors contribute to the interest in her recent discovery. See complete essay


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