A Critique of Simcha Jacobovicis Secrets of Christianity: Nails of the Cross
Simcha makes two bold claims to say the least: the first is that the lost nails of Jesus crucifixion have been recovered, and the second is an implicit assertion that the IAA covered it up. Unfortunately for Simcha, his theory has a problem, and its name is Legion, for they are many. Any one of these problems renders Simchas theory impossible, and their aggregate renders the theory preposterous.
Stop me if youve heard this one before.1
Late Tuesday night around 11:00 PM during Easter week 2011, the History Channel aired a television documentary featuring a host making a particularly sensational claim about Jesus. That host is Simcha Jacobovici and the show is Secrets of Christianity: Nails of the Cross.
Simcha (as the shows narrator regularly referred to him) claims to have discovered the very nails used to crucify Jesus, and subtly implies that archaeologists excavating a tomb in Israel participated in a cover-up to suppress the fact that these nails of the cross had been discovered. Unfortunately for Simcha, this most recent eccentric contribution is perhaps the weakest argument he has ever made a dubious achievement if one considers that Simchas previous sensational claims include the discovery of the route of the Exodus,2 the lost tomb of Jesus family,3 and Atlantis4 (in Spain), among others.
Simcha attempts to tie the nails of Jesus crucifixion to the supposed tomb of the High Priest Caiaphas because, as he states, Caiaphas is only known from the Bible as the Jewish High Priest during the time of Jesus execution.5 Caiaphas certainly did much more as High Priest than recommend one man to the Romans for execution, but it is this myopic error of biblical tunnel vision, which assumes the only history that exists is the history recorded in the Bible, that forces Simcha and so many others into preposterous theories based upon limited information. Wanting to tie Caiaphas to the tomb, the documentary begins with Simcha re-examining an already well-attested discovery: the tomb of a first-century family discovered in 1990 by construction workers, which was excavated and published in 1992.6
Twelve ossuaries were discovered in the so-called Caiaphas tomb, including a highly ornate ossuary discovered in situ (Ossuary 6) with two inscribed Aramaic inscriptions reading, יהוסף בר קיפא and יהוסף בר קפא (variant spellings of Joseph, son of Caiaphas), and another (Ossuary 3) with just the name קפא (Caiaphas) etched in an almost graffito fashion on the ossuary.7
Among the objects discovered and catalogued in the tomb were typical objects associated with Jewish rock-cut burial caves in the first century CE: the aforementioned ossuaries, a perfume vial, a Roman coin in Ossuary 8,8 and an oil lamp.9 Simcha, however, also notes in the excavation report that two small nails were discovered in the tomb. Because nails are not uncommon in excavation sites, and because only those of significant size, shape, or those found in peculiar locations are considered significant, these nails were not photographed, sketched, or measured. Unfortunately, in the world of conspiracy and make believe, this fact that the nails were discovered but not photographed is precisely the kind of opening Mr. Jacobovici needed to begin constructing his conspiracy theory.
Simcha makes two bold claims to say the least: the first is that the lost nails of Jesus crucifixion have been recovered, and the second is an implicit assertion that the IAA covered it up. Unfortunately for Simcha, his theory has a problem, and its name is Legion, for they are many. Any one of these problems renders Simchas theory impossible, and their aggregate renders the theory preposterous. What follows is a critique of Mr. Jacobovicis claims.
First, it is not certain that the tomb discovered by the Israelis in 1990 (and rediscovered by Mr. Jacobovici two decades later), is the tomb of the High Priest Caiaphas mentioned in the Bible. Scholars agree that the tomb is that of an extended family named Qafa or Qofa or Qayafa, which is similar to the name Caiaphas mentioned in Matthew 26 and John 18, but disagree over whether the High Priest Caiaphas is actually buried there. Despite the fact that Josephus gives Caiaphas full name as Joseph Caiaphas,10 Joseph is a common name in first century Jerusalem, and a Joseph would not be unexpected in a first century Jerusalem family tomb. Émile Puech has suggested that the lack of the inscribed Aramaic title כהנא (the Priest) and the poorer general nature of the tomb both argue against identification as the High Priest Caiaphas tomb.11 Other scholars, however, have argued that the intricate nature of the ornate Ossuary 6 and the favorable location of the tomb in Jerusalem demonstrate the wealth of the family, meaning it held some status within society and making it a viable candidate for the High Priests tomb.
Thus, it is not known for certain whether the tomb contains the remains of the High Priest Caiaphas. This much is echoed in the documentary by Israel Museum Curator of Hellenistic, Roman and Byzantine Archaeology, David Mevorah, who says that the ossuary may be from the family of Caiaphas, but that it is not possible to claim definitively that the ossuary belonged to the High Priest himself. Haifa University archaeologist Ronny Reich, who deciphered the writing in the Caiaphas tomb, concurs, arguing that the cave, belongs to a member of the Caiaphas family, but we have no evidence it belongs to the high priest [sic].12
Second, there is no evidence whatsoever that the nails in question came from tomb. Bar-Ilan University Professor of Archaeology, Gabriel Barkay, politely suggests that Mr. Jacobovicis investigation was, very challenging, very interesting, very intriguing, but its a TV show and not a scholarly study. Barkay continues, Theres no proof whatsoever that they originate in the tomb of Caiaphas Its all conjecture.13 Likewise, Garo Nalbandian, the photographer for the tombs excavation who was interviewed in the documentary, explicitly stated that there were no nails photographed. The fact that the nails were not photographed, sketched, or measured for the excavation report means the nails were either too small or too corroded, and therefore were not considered significant.
It is also worth noting that just because two small, loose nails ended up in an unmarked box in a Tel Aviv lab does not mean that they are automatically the nails from the tomb; rather, it means that unlike the ossuaries, the perfume vial, the lamp, and the Roman coin, the nails are unprovenanced (have an unknown origin) and therefore cannot be said to have originated in the Caiaphas tomb. The tombs excavator, Zvi Greenhut, explicitly stated this in a May 2011 press release:
The two nails shown in the film by director Simcha Jacobovici are nails that were stored in Professor Nicu Haas laboratory in the Jerusalem Medical School until the late 1970s, long before the excavation in 1990.
In the late 1970s, Joe Zias, Curator in charge of State of Israel archaeological collections and responsible for physical anthropology in the then Israel Department of Antiquities, was asked to transfer the nails from Professor Haas laboratory in the Jerusalem Medical School to the National Treasures, which was the responsibility of the Department of Antiquities and Museums in the Rockefeller Museum in Jerusalem.
These nails were under the supervision, responsibility and custody of that curator for at least 15 years, until they were transferred in the beginning of the 1990s, at the behest of the then director of the IAA, to the Tel Aviv University Anthropology Department, where they have been until the present.14
This point is lethal to Mr. Jacobovicis theory; the tomb cannot be said to be that of the High Priest Caiaphas, and the nails he shows in the documentary did not originate in that tomb.
Think about it: had the nails discovered in the tomb of Caiaphas been at all significant, or had they resembled crucifixion nails in any way, would we not have expected the Israel Antiquities Authority and the Israel Museum to be the very first to publicize and promote their latest discovery? Would not the IAA, the government agency that contributes so greatly to Israels lucrative tourism industry, have been the first to announce to the world that possible crucifixion nails had been discovered in a tomb possibly associated with the High Priest who sent Jesus to his death? The fact that the IAA didnt bother to catalog the nails means that the nails were so small or so negligible that the excavators felt them unimportant to the excavation. Because the unprovenanced nails in the Tel Aviv lab that Simcha claims are crucifixion nails, are, while small, still substantial, they cannot be the nails mentioned in the excavation report. We can rest assured that had there been any chance whatsoever that Roman crucifixion nails were discovered in a tomb of Caiaphas, the IAA would have been the first to organize a press conference, establish a public relations campaign, announce the discovery to the world, put it on display in the Israel Museum, and sell tickets to see it.
The nails shown to us in the documentary cause yet another problem for Simchas theory: they are too small to have been crucifixion nails. The only comparable evidence of a nail used in crucifixion in Jerusalem was discovered by my friend and colleague, Dr. Vassilios Tzaferis, the retired Director of Excavations and Surveys for the IAA. Dr. Tzaferis led a 1968 salvage excavation in Jerusalem that unearthed an ossuary inscribed with the name יהוחנן בן חגקול (Yehohanan ben Hagkol.)15 Among the skeletal remains within the ossuary was a large nail still driven through poor Yehohanans anklebone, which preserved the remains of some wood used in the crucifixion process. The nail was discovered still buried in the anklebone, which was discovered in the ossuary, clearly inscribed with Yehohanans name, and still in the Jerusalem tomb.16 At 11.5 cm (4.5 in.) long,17 this well-provenanced nail in Yehohanans anklebone was much larger than the nails in Simchas documentary. For this reason, Simcha cleverly never gives the measurements of his nails, never shows the black-and-white centimeter archaeological photo scale next to the nail,18 and avoids holding up the Yehohanan nail and his Caiaphas nail together side by side because the disparity would have been obvious. However, in one scene in the concluding minutes of the documentary, both nails that Simcha holds in his hands are shorter than his thumb and scarcely wider than his finger proof that even these could not possibly have been crucifixion nails. The nails simply do not possess the necessary length needed to pierce a hand and be bent behind any piece of wood thick enough to have held the weight of a human body. They are simply not crucifixion nails.
Simcha must then answer a number of questions that speak to motive. For instance, why would Caiaphas have considered Jesus different than any other Jewish prophet or messianic pretender causing problems for the religious authority? To be sure, decades later the Apostle Paul and the Gospel writers would document the stories and claims purportedly made by Jesus and his followers. But how would Caiaphas know that Jesus was in any way significant at the time? The only support Simcha can produce is the testimony of his colleague and Lost Tomb of Jesus collaborator, University of North Carolina, Charlotte Professor and Department of Religious Studies Chair, Dr. James Tabor, who suggests that Caiaphas just knew that Jesus was special and that his death weighed heavily on his heart.
Simcha must then answer why Caiaphas would want to keep a souvenir of Jesus crucifixion. Simcha introduces York University Professor, Dr. Barrie Wilson,19 who appeals to the apocryphal Arabic Infancy Gospel of the Savior, a sixth-century CE Syriac book, preserved in Arabic, as evidence of Caiaphas motive for retaining the nails.20 The book claims to have been written by Caiaphas, who, far from an enemy of Jesus, was actually a devout follower. Thus, Simchas theory relies on an apocryphal Arabic volume popular among the eastern Christian Nestorian sect, which preserves popular Syriac legends about Christs childhood, purportedly written by the High Priest Caiaphas, a supposed convert to Christianity.21
This remorseful Caiaphas theory has other debilitating problems. Had Caiaphas converted, or even demonstrated the smallest amount of remorse, we can be certain that the New Testament would have mentioned it and used it to demonstrate the innocence of Jesus and the power of his message to convert those who previously did not believe. The New Testament takes every opportunity it can to do this, be it the Roman centurion at the foot of the cross in Mark 15:39, or even the mere ambiguity of Pontius Pilate in Matthew 27:24 (and his wife in verse 19), who washes his hands of the matter before handing him over to be crucified. The book of Acts is rife with stories of Jewish,22 Gentile,23 and particularly Roman24 conversions to Christianity. We can safely assume that had Caiaphas shown the least bit of remorse, the New Testament authors would have seized upon it and exploited it for its apologetic value.
Simcha must also answer why Caiaphas would have wanted the nails specifically, and not some other object as a commemorative keepsake. Why would possessing the nails be more meaningful than, say, the King of the Jews sign above Jesus head, or Jesus crown of thorns? One answer to which Simcha appeals in the documentary is the notion that crucifixion nails were highly prized and worn as protective medical amulets. Mishnah Shabbat 6.10 mentions that Jews carrying a locusts egg, a foxs tooth, or a nail from the gallows of an impaled convict, for purposes of healing, does not break Jewish laws against working on the Sabbath.25 Likewise, Pliny records a superstition that claimed a person could cure a fever by obtaining a fragment of a nail from a cross, wrapping it in wool, and wearing it around the neck.26 However, while some in ancient society no doubt practiced these superstitions, they appear to address only the prevention of physical maladies like fever. Thus, while the presence of nails in a tomb may be evidence of a belief in a popular healing superstition, it is in no way evidence of remorse on the part of Caiaphas.27
Caiaphas would have also needed a means by which to retrieve the nails from the Roman soldiers who crucified Jesus. If we grant a historical crucifixion, and even if we were to set aside the fact that the nails are too small to have been crucifixion nails, Caiaphas would have still needed to manage some way to retrieve the nails from the crucifixion nails that would have normally been recycled and reused. This means Caiaphas would have needed to convert to Christianity immediately after (or perhaps during) the Crucifixion in order to salvage the actual nails. Of course, in this far-fetched scenario, the Roman soldiers would have had to remember precisely which nails belonged to Jesus and which nails were used to crucify those executed beside him. Likewise, because Jesus Friday crucifixion was hurried so that it could be completed before the beginning of the Sabbath, Caiaphas would have had to retrieve the nails immediately prior to or on the Sabbath, where work is strictly prohibited.28
As a High Priest, Caiaphas would have also had to circumvent Jewish law, which prohibits contact with anything associated with a corpse.29 Because Mishnah Sanhedrin 7.1 states that crucifixion was not a sanctioned means of Jewish execution,30 and because contemporary sources state that objects even in the same room as a corpse are unclean,31 it is highly unlikely that the Jewish High Priest would have wanted to touch these nails.
Of course, Simcha has an even greater problem still with the location of the one nail that was discovered in an ossuary. Tomb excavator, Zvi Greenhut reported, Two iron nails were found in this cave. One was found inside one of the ossuaries and the other in Kokh IV.32 Of the twelve ossuaries discovered in the tomb, two were inscribed with the name Caiaphas. In the documentary, Simcha suggests that the nail was found in the simpler, less ornate Ossuary 3, which had the simple inscription קפא (Caiaphas), and not the more ornate Ossuary 6. However, Greenhut identified Ossuary 1 (not Ossuary 3!) as the ossuary in which the nail was found.33 Unfortunately for Simcha, Ossuary 1 was a plain ossuary with no decorations containing the remains of not one High Priest, but the poorly preserved remains of four individuals - two adults and two children.34 Thus, as Gordon Franz concludes, It is clear that at least one of the nails was found in an ossuary other than the ones with the name Caiaphas on them.35
Equally unfortunate for Simcha are the contents of Ossuary 3. According to anthropologist Joe Zias, the retired Senior Curator of Archaeology/Anthropology for the Israel Antiquities Authority, the published anthropological report shows that Ossuary 3 actually contained the remains of not one, but five individuals - an adult female and four sub-adults of indeterminate sex: a juvenile, two approximately 7-year old children, and a newborn.36 Thus, the ossuary in which Simcha believes the nail was discovered only held the bones of women and children. Even if the nails came from the tomb, Simchas theory is wholly unsustainable because the nails did not come from the correct ossuary.
Simcha encounters the still greater problem of needing Caiaphas family to remember that he wanted to be buried with his favorite nails. Worse still, his beloved family would have needed to honor Caiaphas request by tossing one of the precious keepsakes onto the ground while tossing the other into the wrong ossuary.
Greenhut suggests the purpose of the small nails documented in his report was, to inscribe the ossuaries after the bones had been deposited in them, possibly even after some of the ossuaries were placed inside the kokhim.37 This could explain the diminutive size of the nails, the graffito nature of the Caiaphas ossuary inscriptions, any limestone deposits on the nails, and why the IAA disregarded them.
The best candidate for the bones of the High Priest would have been the highly ornate Ossuary 6, which had been twice inscribed with the name of Joseph, son of Caiaphas,38 and which contained the remains of five individuals, including an adult male who had been about sixty years old at the time of his death.39 Unfortunately, no nail was discovered in Ossuary 6, which is the most likely reason why Mr. Jacobovici neglected to pass this information on to his viewers: it would have been yet one more fact that would have completely undermined his entire theory.
Every point of Simcha Jacobovicis theory is wholly unsustainable. Scholars are uncertain whether or not the tomb is the tomb of Caiaphas, or even if the High Priest is actually buried there; they are only certain that it is the family tomb of a family named קפא (Qafa or Qofa or Qayafa). There is no evidence whatsoever that the unprovenanced nails Simcha holds in the documentary originate from the Caiaphas family tomb, and testimony from the tombs excavator flatly state they did not. Even if the nails had originated from the tomb, Simcha must explain why one nail was discovered inside an ossuary with only women and children in it, while the other was found on the floor. The nails are too small to have been used in crucifixion. There is no way Caiaphas could have retrieved the nails had he wanted to, nor does there exist any motive for his wanting to retrieve the unclean items. A sectarian apologetic book written six centuries after the fact, preserved only in Arabic, and containing fantastic apocryphal legends about Jesus childhood cannot be considered credible evidence of Caiaphas sympathy for Christ a fact that would have certainly seized upon by early Christian authors had it been so.
In the end, Simcha Jacobovicis claim that he has discovered the nails used in Jesus crucifixion is a figment of his vivid imagination, lacking any evidence or basis in reality whatsoever. So, in an attempt to salvage his unsustainable theory, Simcha reaches for the age-old weapon used by all pseudo-scientists: the claim of conspiracy. The final part of Simchas documentary focuses upon the mysterious disappearance of the nails and the convenient, almost magical reappearance supposedly 18 years later of two unprovenanced nails with bent tips mounted on a Styrofoam board just for Simcha in a Tel Aviv medical school lab. He not so subtly implies to photographer Garo Nalbandian that someone hid the nails from him. Simcha also compels forensic anthropologist at the Sacker Medical School at Tel Aviv University, Professor Israel Hershkowitz, to suggest that the so-called crucifixion nails were hidden by IAA archaeologists perhaps because crucifixion is a sensitive issue from a religious point of view. Simchas desperate attempt to build a conspiracy theory is the final gasp of a dying theory hoping to salvage just a sliver of acceptance from a conspiracy-loving fringe audience. The narrators concluding claim that, religious sensitivities, not science, dictated policy towards these nails, is nothing less than a conspiracy-driven lie told in an attempt to introduce doubt where hard science has already passed judgment against Simchas claim.
Simcha earlier employed the similar tactic of attempting to lose his viewers in the science of archaeology by introducing Jessie Pincus ground penetrating radar and his plumber friends camera on a string. Simcha had hoped that by focusing upon these otherwise legitimate archaeological tools, viewers would not see through the fallacy of his speculative argument. Unfortunately, the little science that Simcha presents is little more filler. Simchas friend does endoscopic camera work on a tomb that we already know exists, and Dr. Pincus confirmed what we already know: there is, in fact, a tomb just off the road in the Jerusalem Peace Park, which was already excavated in 1990.40 It adds nothing to his argument, and is a feeble attempt to use accepted scientific tools in the hopes of lending credibility to his search.
In the end, Simcha Jacobovicis claim of the discovery of the nails of the crucifixion is nothing but religious profiteering. Simcha read that two nails were found in a tomb and saw an opportunity to speculate and make some money. He produced a documentary about the Nails of the Cross, which would air during Easter week. In order to claim he had discovered the nails of the crucifixion, he needed two things: nails, and a story linking the nails to the Caiaphas family tomb. So he concocted both out of thin air. It is a story that would make Dan Brown proud.
The IAA issued the following statement regarding Mr. Jacobovicis documentary: There is no doubt that the talented director Simcha Jacobovici created an interesting film with a real archaeological find at its centre, but the interpretation presented in it has no basis in archaeological findings or research.41
Winston Churchill once described Russia as a riddle wrapped in a mystery inside an enigma.42 Simcha Jacobovicis claim of the discovery of the Lost Nails of the Crucifixion is speculation wrapped in hearsay couched in conspiracy masquerading as science ensconced in sensationalism slathered with misinformation and topped with a colorful hat.
Simcha Jacobovici did not find the nails of the cross of Jesus. The show was produced and aired during Easter week to prey on the hopes and beliefs of the faithful in anticipation of making lots of money for Simcha Jacobovici and the History Channel. I like shows that entertain while they educate, but Secrets of Christianity: Nails of the Cross did neither. His claim is a disservice to archaeology and biblical studies, and gives a bad name to the science of archaeology. It is for this reason that most legitimate archaeologists have refused to work with Simcha since his Jesus tomb debacle. Let us hope that cable television networks and viewers follow suit soon.
Cargill, Robert R., No, Simcha, You Didnt Find the Nails of the Cross of Christ (a Week before
Easter), XKV8R: The Official Blog of Dr. Robert R. Cargill, April 12, 2011. http://robertcargill.com/2011/04/12/no-simcha-you-didnt-find-the-nails-of-the-cross-of-christ-a-week-before-easter/
Cargill, Robert R., No, Its Not A Nail from the Cross of Christ, XKV8R: The Official Blog of Dr. Robert R. Cargill, March 2, 2010. http://robertcargill.com/2010/03/02/no-its-not-a-nail-from-the-cross-of-christ/
2 Read more about the documentary Exodus Decoded at http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Exodus_Decoded. Read also
3 Read more about The Lost Tomb of Jesus at http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Lost_Tomb_of_Jesus
4 Read more about Finding Atlantis at http://channel.nationalgeographic.com/episode/finding-atlantis-4982/Overview
5 Matt. 26:3-5, 57-68; John 11:49-53; 18:13-14, 19-24, 28-30.
6 Greenhut, Zvi, The Caiaphas Tomb in North Talpiyot, Jerusalem, Atiqot 21 (1992): 63-71. See also Greenhut, Zvi, The Caiaphas Tomb in North Talpiyot, Jerusalem in Ancient Jerusalem Revealed. Ed. H. Geva (Jerusalem: Israel Exploration Society, 1994): 219-22.
7 The irony that a highly ornate ossuary possesses an inscription with very poor etched handwriting has been previously noted by Reich, Ronny, Ossuary Inscriptions from the Caiaphas Tomb, Atiqot 21 (1992): 72-77. See also VanderKam, James C., From Joshua to Caiaphas: High Priests after the Exile (Minneapolis: Augsburg Fortress, 2004): 435-6.
8 Greenhut, Zvi, The Caiaphas Tomb in North Talpiyot, Jerusalem, Atiqot 21 (1992): 70.
9 For typical items associated with first century CE. Jewish tombs, see Berlin, Andrea, Jewish Life Before the Revolt: The Archaeological Evidence, Journal for the Study of Judaism, 36/4 (2005): 454-57. See also Avigad, Nahman, Jewish Rock-Cut Tombs in Jerusalem and the Judean Hill-Country. Pgs. 119-42 (Hebrew), 72 (English summary) in Eretz Israel: Vol. 8: E.L. Sukenik Memorial Volume (1889-1953), Eds. Avigad, N., M. Avi-Yonah, H.A. Hirschberg, B. Mazar, (Jerusalem: Israel Exploration Fund, 1967); Geva, Hillel, and Nahman Avigad, Jerusalem, Tombs, in The New Encyclopedia of Archaeological Excavations in the Holy Land. Ed. E. Stern (Jerusalem: Israel Antiquities Authority, 1993): 747-49.
10 Josephus, Antiquities 18.35
11 Puech, Émile, La croyance des Esséniens en la vie future: Immortalité, résurrection, vie éternelle? 2 vols., Études Bibliques 21-22 (Paris: LeCoffre, 1993): 1.193-95.
12 Chabin, Michele, Archaeologist Thinks He Might Have Found Nails from Jesus Cross, Washington Post, April 15, 2011. http://www.washingtonpost.com/national/religion/archaeologist-thinks-he-might-have-found-nails-from-jesuss-cross/2011/04/12/AFKrMDlD_story.html
13 Chabin, Michele, Archaeologist Thinks He Might Have Found Nails from Jesus Cross, Washington Post, April 15, 2011. http://www.washingtonpost.com/national/religion/archaeologist-thinks-he-might-have-found-nails-from-jesuss-cross/2011/04/12/AFKrMDlD_story.html
14 English translation of an Israel Antiquities Authority Press Release from May 2011: http://www.antiquities.org.il/article_Item_ido.asp?sec_id=25&subj_id=240&id=1823&module_id=&showall=true. Translation via Joseph Lauer and Jim Davila: http://paleojudaica.blogspot.com/2011_05_01_archive.html#79966947934255940
15 See Tzaferis, Vassilios, Jewish Tombs at and near Givat ha-Mivtar, Jerusalem, Israel Exploration Journal 20/1-2 (1970): 18-32. See also, Tzaferis, Vassilios, The Archaeological Evidence for Crucifixion. Pgs. 91-107 in Jesus: The Last Day. Ed. Hershel Shanks (Washington, DC, Biblical Archaeological Society, 2003).
16 See Crucifixion Bone Fragment, 21 CE at http://cojs.org/cojswiki/Crucifixion_Bone_Fragment,_21_CE
17 Zias, Joe, and Eliezer Sekeles, The Crucified Man from Givat ha-Mivtar: A Reappraisal, Israel Exploration Journal 35/1 (1985): 23. See also Haas, Nicu, Anthropological observations on the skeletal remains from Givat ha-Mivtar, Israel Exploration Journal 20/1-2 (1970): 38-59.
18 In the final scenes of the documentary, one will notice the residue of something that has been removed from the Styrofoam mounting board beneath Simchas nails. This may have been where the black-and-white centimeter archaeological photo scale had been prior to its removal.
19 On his website, Dr. Wilson reveals his cross-promotional purpose for appearing in the documentary: [My] forthcoming book, The Lost Gospel decodes an ancient Syriac manuscript using the interpretive techniques employed by early Christians that takes us into the political struggles of the 1st century CE. The Lost Gospel is linked to one episode in an [sic] 7-part documentary series on History Channel USA being produced by Simcha Jacobovici, Associated Producers Ltd. The book and corresponding documentary is anticipated for release in Spring 2012. http://www.barriewilson.com/profile.html
20 Henricus Sike published a bilingual Arabic and Latin translation, the Arabic original of which has been lost: Sike, Henricus, Euangelium Infantiae vel liber apocryphus de Infantia Salvatoris ex manuscripto edidit ac latina versione et notis illustrauit (Utrecht, 1967) (and in Arabic). See also Elliott, James Keith, The Arabic Infancy Gospel. Pgs. 100-107 in The Apocryphal New Testament: A Collection of Apocryphal Christian Literature in an English Translation based on M. R. James. Ed. J. K. Elliott (Oxford: Oxford University Press 1993).
21 These legends include Jesus turning little boys who hid from him while playing into goats; Jesus lengthening and shortening wooden beams which his inept carpenter father, Joseph, had wrongly measured; Jesus commanding a snake to suck out the very poison it had recently injected into a child; and Jesus dying all of a dyers garments in indigo, only later to change them magically to any desired color.
22 I.e., Saul in Acts 9, 22, and 26.
23 I.e., the Ethiopian Eunuch in Acts 8 and the Philippian Jailor in Acts 16.
24 I.e., Cornelius in Acts 10-11.
25 Mishnah Shabbat 6.10. Trans. by Neusner, Jacob, The Mishnah: A New Translation, MISH-N Version 1.8, Accordance Bible Software (Altamonte Springs, FL: OakTree Software, Inc., 1988).
The pertinent passage in Plinys Natural History 28:11 reads: In cases of quartan fever, they take a fragment of
a nail from a cross, or else a piece of a halter that has been used for crucifixion, and, after wrapping it in wool, attach it to
the patients neck. Bostock, John. The Natural History of Pliny. London: George Bell & Sons, 1890. Available at
Tufts Universitys Perseus Digital Library: http://www.perseus.
27 The crucifixion nail as a talisman theory is often used to explain why so little physical evidence of nails supposedly used in crucifixion has been discovered in Jerusalem. See Hengel, Martin, Crucifixion, (Philadelphia: Fortress Press, 1989).
28 Exod. 20:8-11; Deut. 5:12-15
29 Lev. 21:1-2; Ezek. 44:25-27
30 M. Sanhedrin 7:1 reads: Four modes of execution were given over to the court: stoning, burning, decapitation, and strangulation. Trans. by Neusner, Jacob, The Mishnah: A New Translation, MISH-N Version 1.8, Accordance Bible Software (Altamonte Springs, FL: OakTree Software, Inc., 1988).
31 The Damascus Document (CD) 12:17-18 (paralleled by 4Q266 frag. 9, col. 2, line 4) reads: Every instrument, nail, or peg in the wall of a house where a corpse lies shall be unclean, with the same impurity as a work-tool. Trans. by Wise, Michael O., Martin G. Abegg, Jr., and Edward M. Cook, Qumran Sectarian Manuscripts: A New English Translation, QUMENG Version 1.9, Accordance Bible Software (Altamonte Springs, FL: OakTree Software, Inc., 2007).
32 A kokh (Heb: כוך) is a small niche or cavity (often called a locule) within a burial chamber. See Greenhut, Zvi, The Caiaphas Tomb in North Talpiyot, Jerusalem, Atiqot 21 (1992): 68.
33 Greenhut, Zvi, Discovery of the Caiaphas Family Tomb, Jerusalem Perspective 4/4-5 (1991): 11.
34 Zias, Joe, Human Skeletal Remains from the Caiaphas Tomb, Atiqot 21 (1992): 78-79.
35 For a good summary on the archaeology of the Caiaphas burial chamber and an assessment of Mr. Jacobovicis latest documentary, see Franz, Gordon, More on Simcha Jacobovici and the Nails from Caiaphas' Tomb, Associates for Biblical Research, April 21, 2011. http://www.biblearchaeology.org/post/2011/04/21/More-on-Simcha-Jacobovici-and-the-Nails-from-Caiaphas-Tomb.aspx
36 Zias, Joe, More Amazing Dis-Grace: The Jesus Nails: The Naked Truth vs. The Naked Archaeologist. http://www.scribd.com/fullscreen/53330573. See also Zias, Joe, Human Skeletal Remains from the Caiaphas Tomb, Atiqot 21 (1992): 78-79.
37 Greenhut, Zvi, The Caiaphas Tomb in North Talpiyot, Jerusalem, Atiqot 21 (1992): 68.
38 Reich, Ronny, Ossuary Inscriptions from the Caiaphas Tomb, Jerusalem Perspective 4/4-5 (1991): 15-17; 1992a: 72-73, Figs. 5 and 6.
39 Zias, Joe, Human Skeletal Remains from the Caiaphas Tomb, Atiqot 21 (1992): 78-79.
40 Viewers will note in the documentary that there is a road next to the scene involving the nefesh pipe, meaning the scenes of Simcha and his associates spreading out to search for the lost tomb were completely fabricated. Shooting B-roll footage (footage that the videographer shoots to provide context or a background over which a narrator can catch the viewer up on what is happening in the show) is not uncommon in documentary making, and Ive had my share of directors ask me to go up there and walk back towards us while you look around so we can get some B-roll. But, Simchas directive to spread out and search for a tomb whose location is already known is a bit more than disingenuous.
41 Rabinovitch, Ari, Film claims discovery of nails from Jesus's cross, Reuters, April 12, 2011. http://in.mobile.reuters.com/article/topNews/idINIndia-56286220110412
42 Winston Churchills The Russian Enigma, radio broadcast speech was delivered Oct. 1, 1939 from London. http://www.churchill-society-london.org.uk/RusnEnig.html